Why Crucify Haman?

Artistic representations of the Purim villain shed light on medieval Jewish and Christian interpretations of the holiday.

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According to Martin Luther's 1543 essay "On the Jews and Their Lies," Jews demonstrate their "bloodthirsty" and "vengeful" character in their love of the Book of Esther. Luther, a priest who initiated the Protestant Reformation and a known opponent of Jews and Judaism, also said the Book of Esther should be ignored for being "too Jewish" and packed with "too much heathen corruption." The 18th century German Bible scholar Johann David Michaelis took Luther's attack on Mordecai and Esther one step further, by protesting Haman's execution without a fair trial.

Luther and Michaelis were not the only ones to think that the Persian Jews in the Book of Esther should have turned the other cheek to Haman. 


michelangelo's the punish of haman
Michelangelo's "The Punishment of Haman"

In Michelangelo's depiction in the Sistine Chapel, "The Punishment of Haman" pays Haman the theological compliment of crucifying him. Though the Jewish (and literal) reading of the Book of Esther is that Haman is the evil antagonist, Michelangelo seems to imply the opposite: Haman's attempt to kill the Jews was justified, and the fact that the Jews persecuted and killed Haman makes him like Jesus.

Haman's Cross to Bear

Similarly, a miniature in the collection of The Hague, from around the year 1430, shows a bejeweled Esther kneeling before Ahasuerus begging for the lives of her fellow Jews. Ahasuerus, flanked by attendants and a bearded man, who might be Mordecai, extends his golden scepter to Esther. The story progresses from the left, where Esther kneels, to her right, where a near-naked Haman is crucified behind the seated scribe.

The artist or artists who created the work, referred to as the Azor master, would have been familiar with the fourth century Vulgate, Jerome's Latin translation of the Hebrew scriptures, which used the word crux to refer to the gallows which Haman created for Mordecai, and which Haman was later hanged upon.

The word the Hebrew Bible uses for the gallows, etz, more properly refers to a tree, though Hebrew versions of the Gospel of Matthew (controversial in their own right because there are no surviving versions from Matthew's lifetime) also use the word etz in reference to Jesus' crucifixion.

Jerome's translation may have derived from the reference to Haman's crucifixion in the Septuagint, which originated a few centuries earlier--initially by rabbis, who were forced to produce the translation, and later retranslated over time by Christian scholars. In addition, the first century Jewish historian Josephus' account of the Purim story has Haman prepare a cross for Mordecai, and in Josephus' version Haman's death is by crucifixion. The fourth century monk Evagrius, who lived in Constantinople, implied in his writings that Jews of his time considered Haman's death a crucifixion.

A number of medieval Christian authorities were certain that Jews acted upon the belief that Haman, like Jesus, was crucified. For example, the early fifth-century Theodosian Codex, a set of Roman laws, insisted that Jews abstain from "celebrating a certain feast" during which they "very shrewdly" showed their "secret hatred of the crucified Savior" by representing their enemy Haman as a crucified man and burning his effigy amidst "great shouting and frenzy just as if he were Christ."

There are no other sources that clarify how widespread this practice was--or if it happened at all. But according to this source, fifth-century Jews drew comparisons between Jesus' crucifixion on the second day of Passover and Haman's hanging, which according to the Talmud occurred on the same day.

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Menachem Wecker

Menachem Wecker, who blogs on faith and art for the Houston Chronicle at http://blogs.chron.com/iconia, welcomes comments at mwecker@gmail.com. He lives in Washington, D.C.