Kristallnacht

The Night of Broken Glass that began the Nazi reign of terror.

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At least 267 synagogues were burned down or destroyed, and in many cases the ruins were blown up and cleared away. Approximately 7,500 Jewish businesses were plundered or laid waste. At least 177 apartment blocks or houses were destroyed by arson or otherwise.

It has rightly been said that with the November pogrom, radical violence had reached the point of murder and so had paved the road to Auschwitz.

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Karol Jonca

Karol Jonca (1930 - 2008) was a professor at Wrocław University.