Haskalah in Russia and Galicia
The development and expansion of the Jewish Enlightenment.
Although the early Russian maskilim saw signs that the Czarist government might eventually grant Jews equal rights and their strivings were directed to the achievement of this aim, disillusionment soon set in and the maskilim themselves became increasingly suspected of being no more than lackeys of the Russian government whose real intention was to persuade Jews to adopt Christianity. The result was a greater emphasis on Hebrew; and to some extent Yiddish, too, far from being scorned as in the Berlin Haskalah as an uncouth jargon, was welcomed as a truly “Jewish” language. Final disillusionment with the Haskalah's confidence in the Russian government set in with the Russian pogroms in 1881‑2. The thrust of the Haskalah became even more Jewishly pronounced with an emphasis on Zionism as the solution to the problem of the Jew in a hostile environment.
Max Lilienthal (1815‑82), believing the Czarist government to be serious in wishing to grant equal rights to the Jews if only they would abandon their outlandish ways, devoted much effort to spreading the ideas of Haskalahin public meetings and discussions, but he eventually felt that he was being used by the Russians and left for the United States. Another leading figure in the Russian Haskalah was Isaac Baer Levinson (1788-1860), the “Russian Mendelssohn” as he was called. Levinson’s Te'udah BeYisrael (Testimony in Israel) is an appeal for the Haskalah ideal based on passages in the writings of past sages who favored the pursuit of general knowledge and the learning of foreign languages in addition to the traditional scheme of studies.
The Russian maskilim published a number of journals with revealing titles such as Hamelitz (The Defender) and Hashahar (The Daybreak) to which gifted Hebraists contributed essays and new items of what was going on in the Jewish world. Seminaries were established by the maskilim with governmental approval in Vilna and Zhitomir for the training of modern rabbis, in which aim they met with scanty success. The novels of Abraham Mapu and the poems of Judah Lieb Gordon exercised powerful influence on Hebrew readers. In this way the Haskalah idea gathered momentum throughout Russia. Even at the great Yeshiva of Volhozhyn, the fortress of traditional Talmudism, it was far from unknown for the students to read surreptitiously the “little books” of the Haskalah. It has been noted that in the great Vilna publishing house of Romm, authors could be seen reading proofs of their works in the traditional mode side by side with the authors of Haskalah works.
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