Haskalah in Russia and Galicia
The development and expansion of the Jewish Enlightenment.
Reprinted with permission from The Jewish Religion: A Companion, published by Oxford University Press.
Krochmal and Rapoport Carry the Torch in Galicia
From Germany the Haskalah spread to Galicia [a region of Southwest Poland that was annexed to Austria in 1795] and later to Russia. In these countries the Jews were far more deeply immersed in the traditional Jewish learning and far more observant of Jewish practices than their German co-religionists, and had little reason to feel culturally inferior to their Polish or Russian neighbours.
Nevertheless, the Haskalah ideal proved extremely attractive to a number of thoughtful Jews in the Galician towns of Lemberg and Brody. Nahman Krochmal, the foremost exponent of Haskalah ideas, was born in Brody in 1785, a year after the death of Mendelssohn, but lived for most of his life in Zolkiew, where, like Mendelssohn in Berlin but less overtly, he gathered around him a small group of young “seekers of light.” Krochmal was also a pioneer of the Judische Wissenschaft [Science of Judaism] movement, the movement in which Jewish history was studied not as mere chronology but as a discipline pursued by the critical method developed in modern studies. Krochmal's Guide for the Perplexed of Our Time is an interpretation of Judaism in philosophical and rationalistic terms.
Another historian in the critical vein in Galicia was Solomon Judah Rapoport, whose biographical studies of the luminaries of the past display the keenest scholarly acumen. Both Krochmal and Rapoport were strictly observant Jews. Rapaport served, in fact, as a traditional Rabbi in Tarnopol and Krochmal as the head of the Jewish community in Zolkiew. The special foe of the Galician Haskalah was Hasidism, against which the maskilim Isaac Erter and Joseph Pert published works of satire. The Hasidim retaliated by dubbing the maskilim heretics and free‑thinkers whose sole aim was to cast off the yoke of the Torah and the precepts.
In Lithuania and Russia, Jewish Culture Was the Focus
As in Galicia, the Haskalah in Russia took root in a very learned and traditional Jewish society. Especially in sober, rationalistic Lithuania, with its great tradition of Talmudic learning, the Haskalah was attractive to many in that it opened up exciting new intellectual vistas, but the Lithuanian Jews saw nothing anti-intellectual in the traditional scheme of studies. On the contrary, the profound study of the Talmud provided ample stimulus of the mind and had the advantage of being a sublime religious activity, which could be supplemented but not superseded by the Haskalah. Thus the Lithuanian Haskalah was much more a movement within Judaism than the Berlin version of the movement.