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Back to the Sources: Reading the Jewish Classics
The Shema proper is surrounded by three extended berakhot. (As a unit within the prayerbook, the whole structure of the Shema plus its berakhotis itself called the Shema.) The three berakhot deal respectively with the themes of creation, revelation, and redemption; the Shema proper comes between the second and the third.
Berakhah One: Creation
Berakhah Two: Revelation
Berakhah Three: Redemption
The sequence creation-revelation-redemption forms the essential theological drama of Judaism. There is a clear recapitulation here of the movement of sacred history as enacted in the Bible and interpreted by the rabbis: the formation of the world in Genesis, the giving of the Torah at Sinai in Exodus, and the messianic age-to-come as prefigured by the liberation from Egypt.
Yet history is only one level at which these prayers speak. Creation-revelation-redemption are presented not just as events located in the mythic past or the future, but also as processes ongoing within the life of the individual and the people. The first berakhah, for example, forcefully underscores this dimension when it declares that God “through His goodness daily renews the work of creation.” Lest we lapse into an alienated conception of an Aristotelian prime mover, the text insists that the God of Israel continues in His moment-to-moment authorship of our reality.
The berakhah on Creation is the longest, encompassing fragments of ancient poetic litanies and a depiction of the acclamations of the angelic choruses. It is also one of the places where the hand of the rabbis in shaping the liturgy out of biblical materials is most conspicuous. Take the opening statement of the berakhah:
“Praised be You, O Lord our God, King of the universe, Who forms light and creates darkness, Who makes peace and creates all things.“
Now take its source in Isaiah 45.7; God is the speaker:
“I form light and create darkness; I make peace and create evil.”
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