Saadiah Gaon

An introduction to the life and work of a medieval spiritual leader.


From the 8th to the early 11th century, the geonim, heads of the Jewish academies (yeshivot) in Babylon, served as the source of religious authority for medieval Jewry. The most significant Gaon of the period was Saadiah Gaon. This article is reprinted with permission from The Jewish Religion: A Companion, published by Oxford University Press.

Saadiah Gaon (was) a foremost medieval spiritual leader, Talmudist, biblical exegete, and philosopher (882-942). Saadiah was born in Egypt, and lived for a time in Tiberias, after which he was appointed by the exilarch [head of the Jewish community in Babylon], David Ben Zakkai, to be the head of the college at Sura in Babylon, hence the title, Saadiah Gaon.

But rulers seem to have a habit of falling out with their protégés and David soon deposed Saadiah. The quarrel between the two lasted for seven years, remaining unresolved until Saadiah was reinstated.

Saadiah, responding to the Karaite interest in the Bible, wrote a translation of the Bible into Arabic, in which he displays his virtuosity as a grammarian and philologist, as well as his vast knowledge of the Jewish traditional sources. [Karaites, a Jewish sect that arose in the 8th century CE, are characterized by their rejection of rabbinic Judaism and the Talmud in favor of their own reading and interpretations of the Bible] His Prayer Book was one of the earliest to be compiled and is more comprehensive than those of his very few predecessors. But Saadiah’s fame rests on his philosophical work, Emunot De-ot (Beliefs and Opinions), written in Arabic and translated into Hebrew by Judah Ibn Tibbon. This work is the first systematic Jewish theology. It has a special significance as a philosophical defense of rabbinic Judaism by the leading representative of that Judaism of his day.

The “beliefs” in the title are the postulates of the Jewish religion, while “opinions” are the truths arrived at by empirical investigation and rational reflection. Saadiah takes issue with those who see philosophy as harmful to faith. On the contrary, faith is strengthened when supported by reason.

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Rabbi Dr. Louis Jacobs (1920-2006) was a Masorti rabbi, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the United Kingdom, and a leading writer and thinker on Judaism.

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