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Within five years of the start of the Gold Rush in 1848, more than 5,000 Jews migrated to California in search of opportunity, joining members of other religious and ethnic groups. After 1858, with most of the California mining sites appropriated, gold seekers migrated to new strikes in Colorado, Nevada, Montana, Idaho, and Oregon.
Civilizing the West
Jews also fanned out across other nearby states, including Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, and Washington, and by 1920 numbered about 300, 000 in the West. Jewish women were central to the region’s economic, political, social and cultural development.
Some of these women were the wives, daughters, and sisters of the Jewish merchant elite, with the means and leisure time available for prominent involvement in civil life and social welfare issues. Many more, however, performed daily work within their households, contributing to family income as well as taking part in the foundation of philanthropic institutions, synagogues, schools, and libraries. Together, these women helped civilize the raw West and construct communities where social order and Jewish family life could flourish.
Particularly in early western boom towns–where growth was often rapid and chaotic and the number of females small–mutual assistance was critical, and western women often enjoyed more equal status than women in other regions. Domestic skills, for example, commanded top dollar. Many women became seamstresses and food purveyors, or pursued hotel and boarding house ventures.
This path was successfully followed by western Jewish women like Mary Ann Cohen Magnin in California, a talented fine embroiderer who became the guiding hand behind the famous upscale women’s clothing store, I. Magnin and Company; Anna Freudenthal Solomon in Arizona, who first ran a general store and later a successful hotel for nearly twenty-five years, while raising a large family; Jeanette Hirsch Meier of Portland, Oregon, who after her husband’s death presided over the largest department store in the far West; and Regina Moch of Eureka, Nevada, who operated a thriving restaurant that supported her after the death of her husband in a local fire.
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