This judge and warrior led the Israelites in battle against the Ammonites.


Reprinted with permission from Who’s Who in the Hebrew Bible (The Jewish Publication Society).

Jephthah, a man who became renowned for his bravery, was the son of a harlot and a man named Gilead–which was also the name of the region where he lived. His half-brothers, sons of their father’s legitimate wife, fearful that Jephthah would share in their inheritance, expelled him from the family home when he grew up. Jephthah fled to the land of Tob, where he surrounded himself with a band of men of low character.

The Israelites felt threatened by the Ammonites. The elders of Gilead went to the land of Tob and asked Jephthah to lead their army against the Ammonites. Jephthah asked them, "You are the very people who rejected me and drove me out of my father’s house. How can you come to me now when you are in trouble?"

"Honestly, we have now turned back to you. If you come with us and fight the Ammonites, you shall be our commander over all the inhabitants of Gilead," said the elders (Judges 11:7–8).

Jephthah accepted the offer, returned with the elders to the region of Gilead, and assumed the command of the army in Mizpeh. He first tried to solve the crisis peacefully, by diplomatic means. He sent messengers to the Ammonite king, asking him why he was attacking them. The king replied that Israel was occupying his land and demanded that it be returned to him.

Jephthah sent his messengers back to Ammon to explain that when the Israelites came out of Egypt they had not taken any land from Moab or Ammon. They had not even entered the territory of Moab. Instead, they had fought against Sihon, king of the Amorites, defeated him, and had taken possession of his territory.

Furthermore, for about 300 years, the Israelites had inhabited the land and not once during that entire time had the Ammonites tried to recover it. Therefore, Jephthah could not see any justification for Ammon’s demands.

The king of Ammon rejected the arguments and continued his aggression. Seeing that the crisis could not be solved by peaceful means, Jephthah marched with his army toward the Ammonites.

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David Mandel studied at the University of Pennsylvania under Bible scholar Moshe Greenberg, and moved to Israel in 1970, where he founded Computronic Corporation, an Israeli software development company that specializes in biblical software.

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